A survey published last Thursday reveals that over half of Germans see Islam as a threat.
Only a third of respondents were positive towards Islam, far less than for Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism.
A YouGov poll earlier this year on attitudes to religion found that 46% in France and 38% in Britain perceive a clash between Islam and their own countries' values.
By contrast, few respondents saw a clash with other religions.
We can draw one of two conclusions from these findings:
1. That tens of millions of Western Europeans have developed a selective antipathy to Islam for no reason whatsoever.
2. That there are good reasons to fear the rise of Islam in Europe, to do with threats to national identity, values, culture and security.
Which conclusion would you say is most plausible?